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Getting ready to take the robots to the beach

This summer, Geeked On Goddard is reporting on Engineering Boot Camp, a program run by NASA engineer Mike Comberiate. In the program, new and aspiring young engineers work on technology programs to support NASA science.


photo of interns working in building 25


There was a full house of apprentice engineers in Building 25 the past few days, getting ready for a planned trip to NASA Wallops Flight Facility and Assateague State Park. Today, the boot campers are showing off their robotic projects at Wallops, taking a tour, and having a beach party. Tomorrow morning (Thursday), at 5 a.m., they will take the GROVER2 rover to Assateague beach for his first field trials.

I’ll be there to capture it on video. In the meantime, here is a glimpse into Engineering Boot Camp as the teams hurried to get their ‘bots running.





_____________________________________________________________________________________________________
OH AND DID I MENTION? All opinions and opinionlike objects in this blog are mine alone and NOT those of NASA or Goddard Space Flight Center. And while we’re at it, links to websites posted on this blog do not imply endorsement of those websites by NASA.

//
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GROVER2 gets a set of (aluminum) bones

This summer, Geeked On Goddard is reporting on Engineering Boot Camp, a program run by NASA engineer Mike Comberiate. In the program, new and aspiring young engineers work on technology programs to support NASA science.


guillermo and kyle in shop

The other day I stopped by Building 25 — ground zero for NASA Engineering Boot Camp — and was happy to see the ice-crawling robot, GROVER2, taking shape in the shop. Mechanical systems lead engineer Guillermo Diaz (above, right) took me out to a small brick building neat the main building.

In a marathon 36-hour session, slightly bleary-eyed Guillermo helped assemble and weld GROVER2’s aluminum bones together. Fellow Engineering Boot Camper Kyle Hobin (above, left), an undergraduate engineering student at Worcester Polytechnic Institute in Massachusetts, took the lead on welding the components together. The team had recently cut them from large aluminum sheets using high-pressure water jet cutting machinery.

Guillermo has also been working overtime to make sure that critical components, such as wheel bearings, arrive in time to complete GROVER2 for a trip to the beach next week for field testing.

As planned, the new rover is narrower and more compact, just 54 inches wide, 60 inches high, and 65 inches long, by my measurements. The two 1/4 horsepower electric motors that will drive GROVER2’s caterpillar tracks (adapted from racing snowmobile components) are already bolted to the frame.

With luck, we’ll be on the beach next Wednesday to put GROVER2 through his paces. In the meantime, here’s a slide show of images from the shop.





_____________________________________________________________________________________________________
OH AND DID I MENTION? All opinions and opinionlike objects in this blog are mine alone and NOT those of NASA or Goddard Space Flight Center. And while we’re at it, links to websites posted on this blog do not imply endorsement of those websites by NASA.

//
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Introducing Andy Hoffmaster and GROVER the rover

Post 1: Welcome to Engineering Boot Camp
Post 2: Introducing Andy Hoffmaster & GROVER the rover

Andrew Hoffmaster and GROVER, Assateague Island State Park, Md.

Andrew Hoffmaster and GROVER, Assateague State Park, Md.

Andrew (Andy) Hoffmaster is one of the dozens of interns working this summer in the Engineering Boot Camp at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. He recently graduated from the Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C., with a degree in biomedical engineering

It’s Hoffmaster’s third year in Engineering Boot Camp. This year he has stepped up to a leadership role, supervising five different teams of interns who are working on a science robot called GROVER. In a time-honored NASA tradition, “GROVER” is a very impressive-sounding acronym: Goddard Remotely Operated Vehicle for Exploration and Research.

photo of grover rover on beach

GROVER on the beach.

GROVER, in a nutshell, is a solar-and-wind-powered, caterpillar-tracked rover that carries a ground-penetrating radar device. It is designed to roam alone for months at a time measuring the thickness of the Central Greenland Ice Sheet, which is about the size of Texas. “The problem with sending people is that they run out of food and fuel too fast,” explains “NASA Mike” Comberiati, who runs the internship.

Someday, GROVER will crawl across frigid Greenland at up to 3 mph, 10 hours per day, for 4 months. NASA Mike and his interns are working with NASA cryosphere researchers Lora Koenig and Hans-Peter Marshall on the project. (Koenig is based at Goddard; Marshall is at Boise State University in Idaho.

GROVER being unloaded.

GROVER being unloaded.

Hoffmaster and GROVER have spent a lot of time together, although in his first year  internship (2009), he didn’t work on GROVER at all. He designed and built the mechanical parts for a laser-scanning device on another robot, referred to as “the Mothership.” More on the Mothership in future posts, but you can take a quick look at her HERE.

GROVER 1 & 2
In his second internship season (2010), Hoffmaster started working on GROVER. He built the housing for the rover’s electronics. In January 2011, he accompanied Comberiati to McMurdo Station in Antarctica to help install and configure equipment to communicate with NOAA POES satellites.

Making tracks!

Making tracks!

GROVER 1 (shown in the video and images in this post) weighs about 700 pounds. Its solar panels and wind turbines — the spinning blades produce power when it’s cloudy — provide ample power. It has performed admirably in testing.

But GROVER 1 is too heavy and too big, and it takes too long and too much work to unload and assemble. This summer, the interns assigned to build a better GROVER.

GROVER 2.0 will be lighter and smaller. It will sport more efficient solar panels and a lower center of gravity to resist tip-overs in gusty Greenland winds. The rover will also gain software to allow it to operate without constant human monitoring, and to uplink data via the Iridium satellite network.

Also, GROVER 2 will be fabricated in three sections to enable rapid assembly by people wearing bulky cold-weather gloves. After all, standing around in the cold in Greenland can be a health hazard!

This, and more, will require the labor of five intern teams to design, build, and test the electrical components and systems (headed by Hoffmaster) and four mechanical teams (headed by senior intern Guillermo Diaz, a student at Tec de Monterrey in Mexico). It all has to happen in about 5 weeks’ time.

Last year’s crop of interns completed construction of GROVER 1, which today sits on the front lawn of Building 25 in Goddard’s wooded east Campus. The rover will serve this year as a test bed for some of GROVER 2’s new systems.





On the beach with GROVER
It was a chilly day, April 1, 2011. Hoffmaster and three other interns drove with NASA Mike down to Assateague State Park, with GROVER on a flatbed truck. While backing GROVER down the ramps onto the beach, they paused cautiously to check the rover’s orientation.

Then something weird happened, Hoffmaster says. One of the twin caterpillar tracks switched into full reverse and tipped GROVER off the ramps and onto the sand. Thankfully, the robot was unscathed except for a piece of bent metal.

The culprit: “anomalous cold bit.” To us non-specialists, that means that because of cold temperatures, the caterpillar track’s electronic controller sent an incorrect instruction. It’s just the sort of thing that can happen during the development of new technology, and the interns will work to solve it this summer.

On the beach, GROVER proved itself, with enough traction to drag Andy across the sand. Sand, it turns out, is close enough to snow (from GROVER’s point of view) to provide a decent simulation of the rover’s performance in Greenland. They tested it until 3:30 that afternoon and headed for home.

Andy says Engineering Boot Camp gave him valuable engineering insights and skills that he will be able to apply to his new job with Aretech in Dulles, Virginia, developing physical therapy equipment for rehabilitating stroke patients. He’ll work on a device called a “body weight support gait trainer.” It’s a harness on a motorized trolley track that supports patients safely as they re-learn how to walk after brain injury. “I took what I learned at Goddard and can apply it to human kinematics.”

Meet Kristopher Schwebler, NASA Goddard summer intern and water bear wrangler. Could the Japanese movie monsters of the moss world hold the key to putting astronauts in suspended animation?

August 11, 2010 2 comments
Run for your lives! Water bears!

Run for your lives! Water bear!

Meet Kristopher Schwebler, Goddard Space Flight Center’s first water bear wrangler. But he doesn’t teach them the usual circus tricks, like riding a little bicycle around the ring or balancing beach balls on their noses. He’d be happy if the little guys just didn’t all drop dead.

Before the rumors start to fly on the Internet that Goddard is littered with cute furry carcasses, be advised that water bears — a.k.a., moss piglets, from the phylum Tardagrada — are actually tiny critters that live in tree stumps and just about everywhere else on Earth. Many species of tardigrades are microscopic, but the biggest, chubbiest adult tardigrade barely breaks a millimeter in length. Many species would fit comfortably in the period at the end of this sentence. The name tardigrade means “slow walker,” a reference to their bearlike lumbering gate.

Kristopher Schwebler

Kristopher Schwebler

Scientists study tardigrades because they have this amazing ability to come back to life after drying out (“desiccating”) and going into a kind of bulletproof suspended animation called cryptobiosis.
And while they are hibernating, they can survive:

1)  temperatures as low as absolute zero (-273°C) and as high as 151°C.

2)  pressures as high as 5921 times Earth’s atmosphere and as low as the vacuum of space.

3)  1000 times more gamma irradiation than humans can withstand.

In short, they are as unkillable as Twinkies (albeit very tiny Twinkies).

Gathering moss at the stump . . .

Gathering moss at the stump . . .

Understanding how they pull of this trick could show us the way — as in “way in the future” — to putting astronauts in suspended animation for extended space journeys. Or lead to better methods for preserving transplantable tissue and organs — maybe entire hearts or kidneys.

playa PR buttonFrozen alive
Kris was a summer intern in the Lunar and Planetary Science Academy. (He finished up August 6.) He holds a B.S. in genetics, cell biology, and development from the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities as well as a B.A. in physiology and minors in Spanish Studies and Global Studies. He starts this fall at Weill Cornell Medical School in New York City. Did I mention he plays the French horn and trumpet in various ensembles?

Well, OK, very smart guy. But my favorite part of the Clever and Promising Young Intern bio is his explanation of why he ended up doing research on water bears at Goddard Space Flight Center: “I have always wondered how blobs of molecules somehow effortlessly come together to create life.”

Chips of moss containing tardigrades . . .

Chips of moss containing tardigrades . . .

Bear hunt
Kris’s mission as an LPSA intern was to assess the ability of water bears to be frozen alive and then revived — you know, like the intra-galactic-traveling astronauts in countless sci-fi flicks.  As part of this, he would develop a reliable supply of water bears, ideally by learning how to breed them like colonies of lab mice.

But first, he needed breeding stock — a sort of tardigrade sourdough starter. This proved surprisingly difficult and consumed much of Kris’s 10-week internship.

He worked on the project in June and July under the supervision of Goddard planetary scientist Gunther Kletetschka. And by the way, don’t miss the Goddard web feature today by Elizabeth Zubritsky about the Lunar and Planetary Science Academy trip to study the sailing stones of Racetrack Playa in Death Valley, California. Kletetschka went on that trip, along with Kris and the other LPSA interns.

Just add water . . .

Just add water . . .

But back to Kris. He needed some water bears to work with, so Dr. Kletetschka asked for help from a NASA researcher, Daiki D. Horikawa of the Ames Research Center in Moffet Field, California. He’s a tardigrade wrangler/breeder/researcher extraordinaire, and he kindly mailed some desiccated water bears through the mail. Kris added water….. and waited.

The first batch came back to life but would not breed, and expired after their several-days life cycle. Or they didn’t wake up at all.

Water bears are also called moss piglets because they are found in moss. So Kris walked a few hundred feet into a wooded area at Goddard and sliced a bunch of moss and lichens from a true stump. He added water, waited, and voila! “I just added water to them an they came out swimming around.”

A home for water bears . . .

A home for water bears . . .

It’s harder to collect these little guys than it sounds. He must examine the petri dish full of mushy moss under a microscope and use a syringe to capture the water bears. He attempted to feed them/breed them in a see-through plastic container in which he cultivated green algae for the water bears to feed on.

They all died.

Even though the world is just filthy with tardigrades, the little critters are fussy. Different species have different needs. And let’s not even bring up what it takes to coax water bear females into laying eggs so that males can fertilize them. It’s harder than stand-up comedy.

But science marches on. One morning the last week of Kris’s internship, I accompanied him on a final pilgrimage to the Goddard water bear park, otherwise known as “the stump behind Building 2.”

“This is how I do it,” he said, pulling out a razor blade and carefully slicing off chunks of moss from the stump, tucking it into a plastic petri dish. A hundred yards south of our position, the traffic on Greenbelt Road zoomed by the perimeter fence, oblivious to the water bear hunt amidst the scrub oak.

Gunther Kletetschka stops by the lab . . .

Dr. Kletetschka stops by . . .

Lab work
The next day, we met again at the lab — a cluttered garagelike space out at Goddard’s Magnetic Test Facility. Several other LPSA interns flitted about, preparing their final presentation for the coming Friday.

The moss had gotten a good overnight soak, and Kris began collecting tardigrades. The plan was to freeze them solid in liquid nitrogen and take them over to Goddard’s scanning electron microscope to image them.

Tardigrades, it turns out, produce a special kind of sugar molecule called Trehalose. It appears to suppress the formation of tissue-tearing large ice crystals. As I watched Kris work, LPSA intern Leva McIntire used liquid nitrogen to freeze a solution containing Trehalose to determine its anti-icing effect.

Earlier that day, Kris had frozen a bunch of tardigrades very quickly in an attempt to prevent extensive ice crystal formation, producing “semi-amorphous ice.” Then he thawed them. One, he suspected, had come back to life. But he wasn’t sure.

Kris at the microscope . . .

Kris at the microscope . . .

If true, this would be significant. Normally, scientists allow tardigrades to dry out before freezing them, or bombarding them with gamma rays, or performing other acts of torment to find out what can stand. Direct freezing would be a true test of tardigrade toughness.

I watched as Kris pursued water bears with his syringe, and he was having a hard time catching them. “It can be very tedious,” he said. “On a good day, I’ll get 20 after looking for a few hours. But those are just the ones you can see,” Kris said.

Meanwhile, Dr. Kletetschka came by to check on Kris and the other interns at the lab. He explained that secret to tardigrade toughness is the suite of genes that allow them to repair a biological insult known as double-strand DNA breaks.

In our bodies, DNA suffers damage all the time. But our cells have tiny repair crews to fix it.

When a tardigrade dries up — or when it freezes solid — its tissues sustain damage. Entire DNA molecules break. But they appear to be able to fix it. The details are not all exactly clear, but the ability to repair such major damage is of keen interest to scientists.

As we talk, Gunther flips into self-described “science fiction” mode. What if we could develop a genetic engineering technique to confer the tardigrade repair system on humans? One that might allow astronauts to repair space radiation damage?

Intern Leva McIntire pours liquid nitrogen . . .

Intern Leva McIntire pours liquid nitrogen . . .

Freeze dried
It was getting late in the afternoon, and Kris was still struggling to capture a water bear in his syringe and squirt it out in a single droplet on a little copper disk in a Styrofoam container. Freezing the droplet rapidly could fix the biological sample in a rigid state, avoiding other, more involved processes needed for traditional fixation.

Slowly, the surfaces of the ice droplet would boil off (sublime) in the vacuum chamber until the tardigrade’s body was exposed at the surface. At that moment, the “cryo-fixed” critter could be bombarded with electrons and imaged in all its Japanese-monster-movie splendor.

After a long weekend, after Kris moved home and got back online, I reached him. And he gave me a quick update, as well as his final presentation.

“One final conclusion of the experiment was that after flash freezing in their non-desiccated form, at least two tardigrades showed some (although minimal) signs of life, indicating they possess some mechanism to prevent damage from freezing, as almost all other organisms would die,” he emailed me.

Freze-dried water bear . . .

Freeze-dried water bear . . .

“Additionally, we developed a new way to image tardigrades with the scanning electron microscope using flash freezing and subsequent sublimation of ice within the vacuum chamber. Though our results weren’t perfect, I think with more experimentation we could use this method to avoid the shriveling seen in biological samples due to dehydration.”

It intrigues me to think what will become of Kristopher Schwebler. He says he wants to go into aerospace medicine and become a surgeon. But you never know. Could this syringe-wielding medical student become the world’s greatest water bear cowboy?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________
OH AND DID I MENTION? All opinions and opinionlike objects in this blog are mine alone and NOT those of NASA or Goddard Space Flight Center. And while we’re at it, links to websites posted on this blog do not imply endorsement of those websites by NASA.


//
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Meet Kristopher Schwebler, NASA Goddard summer intern and water bear wrangler. Could the Japanese movie monsters of the moss world hold the key to putting astronauts in suspended animation?

August 11, 2010 2 comments
Run for your lives! Water bears!

Run for your lives! Water bear!

Meet Kristopher Schwebler, Goddard Space Flight Center’s first water bear wrangler. But he doesn’t teach them the usual circus tricks, like riding a little bicycle around the ring or balancing beach balls on their noses. He’d be happy if the little guys just didn’t all drop dead.

Before the rumors start to fly on the Internet that Goddard is littered with cute furry carcasses, be advised that water bears — a.k.a., moss piglets, from the phylum Tardagrada — are actually tiny critters that live in tree stumps and just about everywhere else on Earth. Many species of tardigrades are microscopic, but the biggest, chubbiest adult tardigrade barely breaks a millimeter in length. Many species would fit comfortably in the period at the end of this sentence. The name tardigrade means “slow walker,” a reference to their bearlike lumbering gate.

Kristopher Schwebler

Kristopher Schwebler

Scientists study tardigrades because they have this amazing ability to come back to life after drying out (“desiccating”) and going into a kind of bulletproof suspended animation called cryptobiosis.
And while they are hibernating, they can survive:

1)  temperatures as low as absolute zero (-273°C) and as high as 151°C.

2)  pressures as high as 5921 times Earth’s atmosphere and as low as the vacuum of space.

3)  1000 times more gamma irradiation than humans can withstand.

In short, they are as unkillable as Twinkies (albeit very tiny Twinkies).

Gathering moss at the stump . . .

Gathering moss at the stump . . .

Understanding how they pull of this trick could show us the way — as in “way in the future” — to putting astronauts in suspended animation for extended space journeys. Or lead to better methods for preserving transplantable tissue and organs — maybe entire hearts or kidneys.

playa PR buttonFrozen alive
Kris was a summer intern in the Lunar and Planetary Science Academy. (He finished up August 6.) He holds a B.S. in genetics, cell biology, and development from the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities as well as a B.A. in physiology and minors in Spanish Studies and Global Studies. He starts this fall at Weill Cornell Medical School in New York City. Did I mention he plays the French horn and trumpet in various ensembles?

Well, OK, very smart guy. But my favorite part of the Clever and Promising Young Intern bio is his explanation of why he ended up doing research on water bears at Goddard Space Flight Center: “I have always wondered how blobs of molecules somehow effortlessly come together to create life.”

Chips of moss containing tardigrades . . .

Chips of moss containing tardigrades . . .

Bear hunt
Kris’s mission as an LPSA intern was to assess the ability of water bears to be frozen alive and then revived — you know, like the intra-galactic-traveling astronauts in countless sci-fi flicks.  As part of this, he would develop a reliable supply of water bears, ideally by learning how to breed them like colonies of lab mice.

But first, he needed breeding stock — a sort of tardigrade sourdough starter. This proved surprisingly difficult and consumed much of Kris’s 10-week internship.

He worked on the project in June and July under the supervision of Goddard planetary scientist Gunther Kletetschka. And by the way, don’t miss the Goddard web feature today by Elizabeth Zubritsky about the Lunar and Planetary Science Academy trip to study the sailing stones of Racetrack Playa in Death Valley, California. Kletetschka went on that trip, along with Kris and the other LPSA interns.

Just add water . . .

Just add water . . .

But back to Kris. He needed some water bears to work with, so Dr. Kletetschka asked for help from a NASA researcher, Daiki D. Horikawa of the Ames Research Center in Moffet Field, California. He’s a tardigrade wrangler/breeder/researcher extraordinaire, and he kindly mailed some desiccated water bears through the mail. Kris added water….. and waited.

The first batch came back to life but would not breed, and expired after their several-days life cycle. Or they didn’t wake up at all.

Water bears are also called moss piglets because they are found in moss. So Kris walked a few hundred feet into a wooded area at Goddard and sliced a bunch of moss and lichens from a true stump. He added water, waited, and voila! “I just added water to them an they came out swimming around.”

A home for water bears . . .

A home for water bears . . .

It’s harder to collect these little guys than it sounds. He must examine the petri dish full of mushy moss under a microscope and use a syringe to capture the water bears. He attempted to feed them/breed them in a see-through plastic container in which he cultivated green algae for the water bears to feed on.

They all died.

Even though the world is just filthy with tardigrades, the little critters are fussy. Different species have different needs. And let’s not even bring up what it takes to coax water bear females into laying eggs so that males can fertilize them. It’s harder than stand-up comedy.

But science marches on. One morning the last week of Kris’s internship, I accompanied him on a final pilgrimage to the Goddard water bear park, otherwise known as “the stump behind Building 2.”

“This is how I do it,” he said, pulling out a razor blade and carefully slicing off chunks of moss from the stump, tucking it into a plastic petri dish. A hundred yards south of our position, the traffic on Greenbelt Road zoomed by the perimeter fence, oblivious to the water bear hunt amidst the scrub oak.

Gunther Kletetschka stops by the lab . . .

Dr. Kletetschka stops by . . .

Lab work
The next day, we met again at the lab — a cluttered garagelike space out at Goddard’s Magnetic Test Facility. Several other LPSA interns flitted about, preparing their final presentation for the coming Friday.

The moss had gotten a good overnight soak, and Kris began collecting tardigrades. The plan was to freeze them solid in liquid nitrogen and take them over to Goddard’s scanning electron microscope to image them.

Tardigrades, it turns out, produce a special kind of sugar molecule called Trehalose. It appears to suppress the formation of tissue-tearing large ice crystals. As I watched Kris work, LPSA intern Leva McIntire used liquid nitrogen to freeze a solution containing Trehalose to determine its anti-icing effect.

Earlier that day, Kris had frozen a bunch of tardigrades very quickly in an attempt to prevent extensive ice crystal formation, producing “semi-amorphous ice.” Then he thawed them. One, he suspected, had come back to life. But he wasn’t sure.

Kris at the microscope . . .

Kris at the microscope . . .

If true, this would be significant. Normally, scientists allow tardigrades to dry out before freezing them, or bombarding them with gamma rays, or performing other acts of torment to find out what can stand. Direct freezing would be a true test of tardigrade toughness.

I watched as Kris pursued water bears with his syringe, and he was having a hard time catching them. “It can be very tedious,” he said. “On a good day, I’ll get 20 after looking for a few hours. But those are just the ones you can see,” Kris said.

Meanwhile, Dr. Kletetschka came by to check on Kris and the other interns at the lab. He explained that secret to tardigrade toughness is the suite of genes that allow them to repair a biological insult known as double-strand DNA breaks.

In our bodies, DNA suffers damage all the time. But our cells have tiny repair crews to fix it.

When a tardigrade dries up — or when it freezes solid — its tissues sustain damage. Entire DNA molecules break. But they appear to be able to fix it. The details are not all exactly clear, but the ability to repair such major damage is of keen interest to scientists.

As we talk, Gunther flips into self-described “science fiction” mode. What if we could develop a genetic engineering technique to confer the tardigrade repair system on humans? One that might allow astronauts to repair space radiation damage?

Intern Leva McIntire pours liquid nitrogen . . .

Intern Leva McIntire pours liquid nitrogen . . .

Freeze dried
It was getting late in the afternoon, and Kris was still struggling to capture a water bear in his syringe and squirt it out in a single droplet on a little copper disk in a Styrofoam container. Freezing the droplet rapidly could fix the biological sample in a rigid state, avoiding other, more involved processes needed for traditional fixation.

Slowly, the surfaces of the ice droplet would boil off (sublime) in the vacuum chamber until the tardigrade’s body was exposed at the surface. At that moment, the “cryo-fixed” critter could be bombarded with electrons and imaged in all its Japanese-monster-movie splendor.

After a long weekend, after Kris moved home and got back online, I reached him. And he gave me a quick update, as well as his final presentation.

“One final conclusion of the experiment was that after flash freezing in their non-desiccated form, at least two tardigrades showed some (although minimal) signs of life, indicating they possess some mechanism to prevent damage from freezing, as almost all other organisms would die,” he emailed me.

Freze-dried water bear . . .

Freeze-dried water bear . . .

“Additionally, we developed a new way to image tardigrades with the scanning electron microscope using flash freezing and subsequent sublimation of ice within the vacuum chamber. Though our results weren’t perfect, I think with more experimentation we could use this method to avoid the shriveling seen in biological samples due to dehydration.”

It intrigues me to think what will become of Kristopher Schwebler. He says he wants to go into aerospace medicine and become a surgeon. But you never know. Could this syringe-wielding medical student become the world’s greatest water bear cowboy?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________
OH AND DID I MENTION? All opinions and opinionlike objects in this blog are mine alone and NOT those of NASA or Goddard Space Flight Center. And while we’re at it, links to websites posted on this blog do not imply endorsement of those websites by NASA.


//
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